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Communalism In Indian Politics Pdf 32



The term communalism was coined by the British colonial government as it wrestled to manage Hindu-Muslim riots and other violence between religious, ethnic and disparate groups in its colonies, particularly in British West Africa and the Cape Colony, in early 20th century.[4][5][6]




communalism in indian politics pdf 32



The term came into use in early 20th century during the British colonial rule. The 4th Earl of Minto was called the father of communal electorates for legalising communalism by the Morley-Minto Act in 1909.[14] The All-India Muslim League and the Hindu Mahasabha represented such communal interests, and the Indian National Congress represented an overarching "nationalist" vision.[15] In the runup to independence in 1947, communalism and nationalism came to be competing ideologies and led to the division of British India into Pakistan and the Republic of India. British historians have attributed the cause of the partition to the communalism of Jinnah and the political ambitions of the Indian National Congress.[16]


For Tagore it was of the highest importance that people be able to live, and reason, in freedom. His attitudes toward politics and culture, nationalism and internationalism, tradition and modernity, can all be seen in the light of this belief.11 Nothing, perhaps, expresses his values as clearly as a poem in Gitanjali:


Same as Mexican American Studies 320F and Urban Studies 322T. Examine the steady dissociation of Texas from its Old South status to a transitional state and a power in national politics. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: History 320F, 320R, Mexican American Studies 320F, 374 (Topic 16), Urban Studies 322T, 353 (Topic 2). Prerequisite: Upper-division standing.


Same as American Studies 325M, Comparative Literature 323 (Topic 71), and Russian, East European, and Eurasian Studies 325 (Topic 45). Examine a wide array of American attitudes towards Russia and Russians. Using a variety of political, social, and cultural events and encounters, analyze the ways in which nationalism, imperialism, and geopolitics informed American narratives about Russia and Russians, assessments that range from enthusiasm and curiosity to condemnation and outright hostility. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: American Studies 325M, Comparative Literature 323 (Topic 71), History 326D, Russian, East European, and Eurasian Studies 325 (Topic: Russia Thru American Eyes), 325 (Topic 45). Prerequisite: Upper-division standing.


Same as Asian Studies 340L. Examines in a historical context the Chinese economy, society, politics, and culture during the reform era that began in the late 1970s. Explores the transformation of rural and urban economies and related social consequences; government systems, political ideologies, and popular values; and China's integration into the global system and its impact on China's role in world politics. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Asian Studies 340L, 361 (Topic: Post-Mao China: Change and Transformation), History 340L, 364G (Topic: Post-Mao China: Change and Transformation). Prerequisite: Upper-division standing.


Same as Ancient History and Classical Civilization 330 (Topic 5), European Studies 346 (Topic 38), and Religious Studies 375S (Topic 8). An exploration of the religious encounters between eastern and western Christians, Christian heretics, Jews, Muslims, and polytheists; political, military, and cultural changes of the high middle ages; and the ways that crusading ideas and symbols have been reused in contemporary politics and popular culture. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Ancient History and Classical Civilization 330 (Topic: The Crusades), 330 (Topic 5), European Studies 346 (Topic: The Crusades), 346 (Topic 38), History 344S, 350L (Topic: The Crusades), Religious Studies 375S (Topic: The Crusades), 375S (Topic 8). Prerequisite: Upper-division standing


Same as Latin American Studies 366 (Topic 21) and Religious Studies 368D. History of Church-state relations and religious politics in modern Latin America, with emphasis on the nineteenth to early twentieth-century periods. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: History 346W, Latin American Studies 366 (Topic 21), Religious Studies 368 (Topic 1), 368D. Prerequisite: Upper-division standing.


Same as African and African Diaspora Studies 351L and American Studies 321 (Topic 9). Examines United States history in the post-World War II era, including how civil rights and other racial issues helped shape the politics, popular culture, and social life of this period. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: African and African Diaspora Studies 351L, 374D (Topic 17), American Studies 321 (Topic 9), History 356P, Mexican American Studies 374 (Topic 36). Prerequisite: Upper-division standing.


Same as African and African Diaspora Studies 357D, American Studies 321F, and Urban Studies 327D. Survey of the history of African Americans in the United States from 1860 to the present: Emancipation, Reconstruction politics, migration and urbanization, and the evolution of African American culture; kinds of sources and methods valuable for analyzing African American life and culture. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: African and African Diaspora Studies 357D, American Studies 321 (Topic: African American History since 1860), 321F, History 357D, Urban Studies 327D, 353 (Topic 1). Prerequisite: Upper-division standing.


Same as European Studies 348 (Topic 10), German, Scandinavian, and Dutch Studies 361V, and Government 368V. Explore fundamental questions about the unique role of culture in modern democracies and dictatorships by taking an overview of culture and politics in the Third Reich. Examine questions about the relationship between political propaganda and modern entertainment, mass media and authoritarianism, political aesthetics and ideology, and the dynamics of oppression, resistance, and consent. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: European Studies 348 (Topic: Nazi Culture and Politics), 348 (Topic 10), German, Scandinavian, and Dutch Studies 360 (Topic: Nazi Culture and Politics), 361V, Government 365N (Topic: Nazi Culture and Politics), 368V, History 361R, 362G (Topic: Nazi Culture and Politics). Prerequisite: Upper-division standing.


Same as European Studies 346 (Topic 8), German, Scandinavian, and Dutch Studies 360 (Topic 3), and Religious Studies 357F. Explores the theologies, politics, and personal identities that emerged and passed away in this era. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Czech 324 (Topic 4), European Studies 346 (Topic 8), German, Scandinavian, and Dutch Studies 360 (Topic 3), History 362G (Topic 12), 362T, Religious Studies 357 (Topic 12), 357F, Russian, East European, and Eurasian Studies 325 (Topic 28). Prerequisite: Upper-division standing.


Same as Latin American Studies 366 (Topic 39). Examine an overview of life and politics in contemporary Mexico. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: History 363J, 363K (Topic: Life/Politics Contemp Mexico), Latin American Studies 366 (Topic: Life/Politics Contemp Mexico), 366 (Topic 39). Prerequisite: Upper-division standing.


Same as Latin American Studies 366 (Topic 38). Explore the impact of the Cuban revolution in Latin American politics, gender roles, and women's participation in public life during the sixties. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: History 363K (Topic: Latin America in the Sixties), 363T, 366N (Topic: Latin America in the Sixties), Latin American Studies 366 (Topic: Latin America in the Sixties), 366 (Topic 38). Prerequisite: Upper-division standing.


Same as African and African Diaspora Studies 340E and Women's and Gender Studies 340 (Topic 32). Major themes include politics, economics, religion, the family, culture, technology, feminism, colonialism, nationalism, and development in relation to the lives of African women. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: African and African Diaspora Studies 340E, 372G (Topic: African Women's History), 372G (Topic 6), History 364G (Topic: African Women's History), 364G (Topic 5), 364J, Women's and Gender Studies 340 (Topic: African Women's History), 340 (Topic 32). Prerequisite: Upper-division standing.


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