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Buy Melatonin Worldwide Labs ((EXCLUSIVE))

Melatonin is a hormone produced in the body and secreted at night. Taken as a dietary supplement, it is designed to help combat restless nights and may also be helpful for jet-lag and time zone changes. Olympian Labs Melatonin works to enhance the amount of natural melatonin produced by the body during sleeping hours.

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If you think your sleep is being disturbed by stress, you are probably right! Stress hormones suppress our natural melatonin production so it may not be produced in sufficient quantities to guarantee restful sleep. With the support of melatonin you may also experience reduced stress, better overall health, and a stronger immune system.

Same flight schedule as in Figure 5, but in this case Susan uses melatonin and light exposure to phase advance her circadian clock towards the destination time zone before the flight and avoids circadian misalignment and jet lag. She advances her sleep schedule by 1 h/day. She exposes herself to bright light in the morning either by going outside (S), which is best, or by using a light box (L) when it is before sunrise or otherwise impractical. She takes 0.5 mg melatonin in the afternoon timed to produce the maximum phase advance according to the 0.5 mg melatonin PRC. This low dose should not make her sleepy. The arrow within the flight indicates that this is a good time to sleep and that going to sleep earlier is encouraged, as it is whenever the sleep schedule is gradually advanced.

There has been a fivefold increase in U.S. adults taking melatonin supplements for sleep, according to a study co-authored by Dr. Naima Covassin, a researcher in Mayo Clinic's Cardiology Lab.Melatonin is a hormone in the body that plays a role in your natural sleep-wake cycle. And it's available as a supplement that around 6 million adults in the U.S are taking to help manage their sleep. But are they using it correctly?

Dr. Covassin says melatonin is not a sleep promoter. It's a circadian rhythm regulator that can help "reset our clocks" when sleep is difficult due to circadian disruption from things like shift work, jet lag or disorders that interfere with the time of sleep.

After being long considered as a hormone exclusively produced in the pineal gland of animals (Figure 1), melatonin has been identified in plants [17], insects [18], fungi [19] and bacteria [20]. Given the potent health effects of melatonin, many foods have been tested in the past decades and melatonin was identified and quantified in both animal foods and edible plants [21,22]. Huge differences of melatonin concentrations were reported among various food species and/or organs, ranging from pg/g to mg/g [22,23]. Additionally, it was well documented that the consumption of melatonin-rich foods may induce the potential health impacts by significantly increasing the serum melatonin concentration and antioxidant capacity in human beings [24]. Therefore, those foods containing melatonin are now popular and regarded as promising nutraceuticals [25,26,27].

As a powerful endogenous radical scavenger, melatonin can directly remove the excessive free radicals. In addition, melatonin at 10 mg/kg was found to increase the efficiency of electron transport chain in mitochondria in old mice to lower electron leakage and reduce free radical generation [122]. Therefore, melatonin is essential to keep a stable physiological status in human body. Moreover, it could effectively play a role by modulating and acting synergistically with other reducing molecules like reductases [123] and some non-enzyme reductants [124], all of which work together to maintain normal homeostasis.

Numerous evidence supports that melatonin is a broad-spectrum free radical scavenger [132,133,134]. In addition to ROS/RNS, many other molecules could be modulated or scavenged by melatonin and its metabolites, such as hemoglobin-derived oxoferryl radicals [135]. Furthermore, in vitro and/or in vivo, melatonin is able to chelate toxic metals such as cadmium [136], mercury [137], arsenic [138], lead [139], aluminum [140], chromium [141], which are involved in the generation of free radicals. Moreover, melatonin and its metabolites were also documented to exhibit free radical avoidance properties, by downregulating pro-oxidative enzymes like inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) both in vitro (dose-dependent) and in vivo as well as inhibiting the mRNA expression of cyclo-oxygenase 1 (COX-1) and COX-2 in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) [142,143].

In addition to the pathways mentioned above, the anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin were also observed as it regulated the expression of some pro-inflammatory genes [150]. Moreover, it was found that melatonin could inhibit the expression of inflammatory chemokines/cytokines, i.e., chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) that was mediated by IL-17 and enhanced by increased insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the prostatic tissues of obese mouse through a glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)-dependent mechanism [169]. Another study found that melatonin at 10 μM could show its anti-inflammatory impacts time-dependently by inducing temporal up-regulation of gene expression related to ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum [170]. Additionally, it was reported that melatonin (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, i.p.) attenuated colitis with sleep deprivation in mice by downregulating mRNA of E2F transcription factor (E2F2) and histocompatibility class II antigen A, beta 1 (H2-Aβ1), indicating its clinical potential for patients with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly those suffering from sleep disturbances [171]. Furthermore, melatonin was reported to reduce intestinal ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung injury in rats dose-dependently by activating the expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), which was involved in cellular differentiation, development, anti-apoptosis, anti-inflammatory cytokine, and antioxidant [172]. However, it should be pointed out that those results were from different animal models. If the same animal model was used, different results might be observed.

It was observed that melatonin could reverse the weight loss of thymuses [175] and spleens [188] in different pinealectomized animal models and melatonin could increase tonsillar size [189], indicating the protective effects of melatonin on the immune organs. Besides, melatonin and its metabolites like AFMK were found to improve the proliferation, increase the activity and inhibit apoptosis of immune competent cells such as monocyte [190], natural killer (NK) cells [191] and neutrophils [192]. Melatonin could act on the membrane receptors MT1 and MT2 and increase the sensitivity of the immune cells to some cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ in vivo at the dose of 10 mg/kg orally administrated [193]. Furthermore, Ghosh et al. found that melatonin could restored the suppressed immunity of T-cell culture in vitro, indicating melatonin might be valuable in regulating immunity via the functional interactions with gonadal steroid by developing some hormonal microcircuit (gonadal steroid and melatonin) in lymphatic organs [194]. Moreover, melatonin was able to modulate immune mediator production, e.g., increased IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-6 in monocytes [195] in cultured human mononuclear cells, decreased IL-8 and TNF-α in neutrophils [192], decreased IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α in macrophages in RAW264.7 cells [196]. This profile is of great importance as some cytokines have been shown to interact with immune cells and promote their growth, differentiation, activation, and survival. Besides the endocrine actions from the pineal melatonin, the melatonin synthesized in immune system could exhibit direct immunomodulatory effects by means of nonendocrine actions, including intra-, auto-, and/or paracrine actions via its membrane and/or nuclear receptors [197], which were crucial for human lymphocytes to generate an accurate response by modulating the IL-2/IL-2R system [198].

Melatonin was reported to regulate the ROS production in the essential immune cells such as monocytes [199] and neutrophils [200]. Moreover, melatonin was found to augment the general immunity by attenuating oxidative load associated with age in hamsters by 25 μg/100 g body weight for 30 days [201]. It was reported that melatonin could alleviate oxidative damage and suppress the immune status induced by stressful factors via its membrane receptor expression MT1 and MT2 in wild birds [202]. Due to its anti-inflammatory properties, melatonin could suppress systemic innate immune activation during sepsis in mice both in vivo and in vitro by blocking the NF-κB/NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) connection through a sirtuin1-dependent pathway [154].

In mammals, most of the physiological processes and behaviors are regulated by a network of circadian clocks. The circadian system consists of a central rhythm generator, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and several peripheral oscillators [211]. Besides, the central clock can control the production of melatonin, which could modify the peripheral clocks and inversely alter the expression of circadian clock genes. Johnston et al. [212] found that rising melatonin levels could reset circadian rhythms in the mammalian pars tuberalis. Melatonin has long been known to help prevent and treat jet lag, a typical example of disrupted circadian rhythms often caused by travelling [2].

The animal models of melatonin-proficient (C3H) and melatonin-deficient (C57BL) mice are frequently used to study the role of melatonin on circadian rhythms. In a study, research on three clock gene proteins PER1, BMAL1 and CRY2 in the murine adrenal cortex and medulla was conducted and the results showed that in C3H mice, PER1 and CRY2 maximized in the middle of the light phase, whereas BMAL1 reached its peak in the dark phase and these three clock gene proteins levels displayed day/night variation in both the adrenal cortex and medulla. Similar patterns were revealed in the adrenal medulla of C57BL mice, but in the adrenal cortex of C57BL mice, clock gene protein levels were consistently lower than in C3H mice and did not change with time [211]. In another study, the modulatory effects on clock gene expression of melatonin was investigated in the retina of those two groups of mice, and the results demonstrated that melatonin functioned via post-transcriptional mechanisms and also played a role in rhythmic regulation of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) levels in the mammalian retina [213]. 041b061a72


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