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Hudson Diaz
Hudson Diaz

Initial D: Second Stage Episode 5



In 1998, Initial D was adapted into an animated television series produced by OB Planning and Prime Direction. The first episode premièred on Fuji TV on April 8, 1998. The initial series ran for 26 weekly episodes with the finale airing on December 5, 1998.




Initial D: Second Stage Episode 5



The second series, named "Second Stage", aired from October 14, 1999, to January 20, 2000, with a one-week break over the New Year period. This was followed by animated feature film in 2001 and an OVA documenting all battles from the previous three stages, with the battles from First Stage being re-animated.


Initial D Third Stage was a feature film covering the story arcs between the second and fourth stage, released in Japan on January 13, 2001. It earned a distribution income of 520 million ($6.52 million) at the Japanese box office.[20]


In 2014, "Initial D Final Stage" became the latest installment in the anime series. Animax has aired its first two episodes on a pay-per-view basis on its own brand new ANIMAX PLUS channel, on May 16, 2014, on its new subscription VOD (Video On Demand) service, which allows subscribers to watch all the latest anime series. Initial D Final Stage will start right after where Fifth Stage left off. There are a total of four episodes that makes up this mini stage.[22] The final two episodes were broadcast on June 22, 2014.


This episode, "Premonition of Defeat" is the race between Seiji and Kyoichi. Seiji's Evo IV goes into full-throttle into the battle. Kyoichi Sudō, the Emperor's team leader tries to knock some sense into Seiji at the beginning of the competition. Given that Kyoichi is the first racer to defeat Takumi in the Second Stage, his beating Takumi at every level at the behest of his Evo IV is a thrill to watch. In the second half of the battle, although Takumi wins, his victory doesn't feel as sweet.


The fourteenth episode, titled "Conclusion! Extreme Hill Climb," takes the race between Keisuke's FD and Go Hojo's NSX into the climax stage. Keisuke's performance in the previous stage shocks many, including his opponent. The second stage is an intense hill-climb, where Keisuke takes Hojo head-on, which scares the latter. This battle is crucial in that it is the stepping stone to Initial D: The Final Stage.


The ICP time series were downloaded from a Phillips Intellivue MP40 multiparametric monitor (Philips Healthcare, Inc., Andover, MA) during the experiment (first, second, and third stages) using custom-made software based on the open-source application VSCapture [49]. VSCaptureMP uses the C# .NET/Mono programming platform, and the data capture is based on an event-triggering programming paradigm at the corresponding port. It currently uses either UDP/IP protocol via the LAN or the MIB/RS232 port on the monitor for data logging. It is freely available from , accessed on 3 October 2022), It has been used several times in previously published research [48,50,51,52,53,54,55,56]. The sampling frequency for ICP was 200 Hz. After downloading, the ICP signal was filtered using a band-stop Butterworth filter to remove the power-line noise frequency at 50 Hz. Finally, a low-pass Butterworth filter with a cut-off frequency 60 Hz was applied in order to remove high-frequency noise. The filter order was 4 for all filters used. All data are downloaded to a csv (comma-separated value) format and are accessible from the corresponding author given a reasonable request. All computations were done using Python libraries. Unfortunately, during the first experiment, there were problems in the interface between the monitor and the software, so the first pig experiment was excluded from this paper because its sampling frequency (1 Hz) is not suitable for the tools proposed here.


The NMP is the number of patterns that do not appear in an actual time series and may be related to the ability of a physiological system to adapt to environmental change [18]. We computed normalized NMP for each window and normalized them over 720 in order to obtain a scale bounded between 0 and 1. Figure 5 shows the normalized NMP (red line) along with the ICP waveform (blue line, left y-axis) and ICC (red line, right y-axis) for the four pigs analyzed. In stage 1 (first column), NMP remains almost constant with similar values between pigs (0.92, 0.91, 0.92, and 0.88 for pigs 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively). During the second stage (second column), ICC and NMP have opposite behavior, one ICC growth, NMP decreases, and vice versa. is correlated with ICP; when ICP increases, the proportion of NMP also increases. However, this association is not as robust as the relationship with PE suggesting that the later fluctuation is not being fully explained solely by an increasing NMP. This is expected since the MPN could show the adaptive capacity of the system and the ICC is the ability of the cranial-spine system to adapt to volume additions. In pig 2 (first row), ICC behaves differently from the rest of the pigs because the ICC does not reach values as low as in the others. This is because the brain was more compliant and was better able to contain volume changes.


The second stage involved in-depth interviews of identified TB patients who were treated for pulmonary TB in Mumbai and had completed their anti-TB treatment in the past six months. A total of 82 patients consented to being interviewed using a pre-tested open-ended semi-structured interview schedule ( Supplementary File 1). Pre-testing was conducted as per study protocol on six known TB cases from K/East ward who were excluded from the final study sample. Of the 82 patients that consented to be interviewed, 23 DR-TB patients were identified (28%), and only these interviews were included in the present analysis. The data from the remaining 59 patients has been previously published 5 . Patients were identified as DR-TB cases if they had completed their anti-DR-TB treatment in Mumbai within the past six months of the interview. Besides patient information, diagnosis and treatment records of patients were obtained and seen by the researchers. Photographs of these were taken and shown to our clinical consultant on the study (YD), on whose opinion, the cases were classified as DR-TB. Two were identified as extensively drug resistant (XDR) cases based on their line probe assay (LPA) (Hain Lifescience, Nehren-Germany) results. Monoresistance to Isoniazid (INH) could not be identified as drug sensitivity testing (DST) through the line probe assay LPA was not available for all cases at the time of the study.


Since it is more likely for a retreatment patient to be resistant at their second episode, DST testing is mandated at the time of diagnosis. However, the failure in undertaking this in over 70% of patients in the present study, exceeded the proportion (45%) reported in another study conducted in Andhra Pradesh, India 7 . This calls for a more stringent implementation of the diagnostic algorithms for standards of care in DR-TB at field level. This is particularly important for areas with high prevalence of DR-TB such as Mumbai.


2. Response: We have modified Figure 1. to give the number of cases excluded for various reasons. Only 14 did not consent to participate (refusals) whereas others either did not meet the inclusion criteria or were unable to be interviewed. The inclusion criteria for the second stage was more stringent as opposed to a more broader criteria used in selection at stage 1. Unfortunately demographic details for patients that did not consent or not included in the study were not collected as it did not fall in the purview of the study objective. 041b061a72


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